Anhörung „Digitale Bildung“ im Bundestag

Der Ausschuss für Bildung, Forschung und Technikfolgenabschätzung des Bundestags hatte fünf Experten nach Berlin eingeladen, um über den Antrag „Durch Stärkung der Digitalen Bildung Medienkompetenz fördern und digitale Spaltung überwinden“ der Regierungsfraktionen zu diskutieren. Für das Learning Lab nahm Richard Heinen an der Expertenrunde teil.

Die Aufzeichnung der Sitzung am 22. April 2015 ist in der Mediathek des Bundestags verfügbar. Die Positionen, die Richard Heinen vertreten hat, sind in einer schriftlichen Stellungnahme zusammengefasst. Saskia Esken, SPD, fasste die Veranstaltung in einer Pressemeldung zusammen.

Provisioning strong and weak OER: Requirements of open informational ecosystems

Vortrag mit Christoph Schindler auf der OEC Global in Banff, Canada

Authors

  • Heinen1, Richard, M.A.
  • Prof. Dr. Kerres1, Michael
  • Dr. Schindler2, Christoph
  • Prof. Dr. Rittberger2, Marc

1 learninglab – Universität Duisburg – Essen
2 DIPF – German Institute for International Educational Research

Title: 

Provisioning strong and weak OER: Requirements of open informational ecosystems

Short description

A federate reference infrastructure in an open informational ecosystem will be presented. Special attention is given to strong and weak OER. (135 char.)

Abstract

It can be considered as one of the main added values of the digital world that the production and distribution of learning materials is much easier. The OER movement benefits from these possibilities. Whereas, publishing OER is one thing; others are to maintain the material, to make it accessible and to establish methods for quality assurance aligned to whole educational systems and its various practices.

Repositories of OER (ROER) can help to fulfil these tasks, if they follow some given criteria (Atenas & Havemann, 2014) and consider the entanglement of heterogeneous practices (Star, Ruhleder 1996). Yet unsolved and underestimated is the question how to enhance transparency between different ROERs (Conole & Alevizou, 2010). Or: ROERs are regarded as appropriate tools to foster (McGreal et. al., 2013) the awareness for OER (UNESCO, 2012). However, this reflects only the perspective of publishers and not of (inter)national educational systems. If resources are open the different metadata created by authors, editors and users, or even aggregated automatically should be open as well and accessible from different places. Furthermore, collecting descriptions, peer-reviews, ratings and other metadata independent from the resource increase the quality assurance, transparency, and informational capacities of the user.

So far an open ecosystem has been characterized (Kerres & Heinen, 2014a) and the benefits of metadata created jointly by different (types of) users have been demonstrated (Heinen, Blees, Kerres, & Rittberger, 2014). In an open ecosystem various stakeholders come together. Content providers offer content on their platforms. Schools, teachers and students are using this content on their LMS or school server. On an intermediate level a reference platform (also called “referatory”) can help teachers and learners to find and choose the material that seems to be appropriate for their tasks. Thereby, references platforms can add substantially to the quality assurance, diversity, and transparency. The information provided here can be gathered in different ways. Editorial staff can select material under different aspects, users can generate metadata by rating, tagging and describing material they find useful, content providers themselves may have access to a reference system and can bring in information about their products. Last but not least information can by collected automatically from the web or from resources already brought in by others. For end users like students and teachers it is easier to access a few (or even one) reference systems to search the material of various content providers.

Of course the described procedure from content platform via reference platform to learning platform can be realized in one closed ecosystem provided by one publisher or company, whereas open informational ecosystems allow for any provider of contents to “plug into” the ecosystem by providing metadata for the reference platform. Building federated or decentralized systems of interconnected services seems to be a difficult task as there are not only questions of exchange formats and APIs to be answered, but also complex practices – often invisible for users and / or authors – need to be aligned to attract different players to take part. Although the intermediation of the reference infrastructures is challenging, it offers a great chance at the same time; each player benefits from each other by enriching the choices of users and the diversity of OERs.

A differentiation in „weak“ and „strong“ OERs (Kerres & Heinen, 2014b) characterizes further the federated open ecosystem. Two dimensions are worth to be mentioned. The first dimension comprises the fluidity of OER. As Tuomi (2013) has pointed out, there are various understandings of “open” educational resources. Basically they agree that OER are materials that can be used by learners free of (additional) cost. In these cases OER is seen as a fixed entity whereby the actions of teachers are restricted to looking for material that can be used for free and accessed without any barriers. This can be called a „weak” definition of OER which is limited to materials and licenses and focuses on availability and accessibility: OER are considered as fixed materials which are free to use for a learner – but the practice of using and its possible rearrangement of OER for teaching is out of scope.

A “strong” definition has been discussed in respect of sharing OER including the right to edit, remix, and reshare materials with a license „allowing open practices”. David Wiley (2010) has framed the 4Rs (reuse, revise, remix and redistribute) that can be drawn on for a “narrow” definition of OER. Activists of an “OER movement”, like Stephan Downes, stress the point that OER should grant these more extensive rights. In this line of reasoning OER is often seen as an agent for educational visions where teachers actively participate in a mutual exchange of artefacts, ideas, and discourse. But changes in the value creation chain in the production of digital assets for learning have to be kept in mind (Richter & Veith, 2014).

The second dimension comprises the granularity of an educational resource and its relation to educational practices. From a complex level to single objects OER can be distinguished between textbooks, units, materials, and assets. Currently, the discussion about OER is primarily related to the level of learning materials. Teachers produce these materials for homework and exercises in their classes. These materials include assets found in the web or in other sources. The production of „strong“ educational resources with a higher granularity (i.e. textbooks) typically relates to a certain curriculum. It brings OER more into educational practices and its affordances for teaching and learning. But so far, only few examples exist, where such materials have been made successfully available under an OER license. A federated open ecosystem should also support the aggregation of OERs of a higher level of granularity from different services. By these strong OER emerge even from end users activities and must be mapped into the ecosystem to be searchable and to include them into a quality assurance process that seems to be needed even for OER (Hug, 2014).

The presentation describes a federated open ecosystem for OER using the German educational system as a use case. While the German federal educational system by its configuration hindered so far the establishment of a centralised OER system it offers the chance to establish a decentralized OER reference infrastructure that entails an open ecosystem and aligns the heterogeneous curricula for „strong“ OER. Additionally, a variety of ROERs (Muuß-Merholz &  Schaumburg, 2014) and reference platforms (Kühnlenz  et. al., 2012) has been established over the past years in Germany (Heinen et al.,  2014). The alignment of the presentation addresses policy makers, content publishers as well as educators to discuss and to reflect on the concepts of open informational ecosystem, strong and weak OER and its implications for the production and distribution of OER.

References

Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (2014). Questions of quality in repositories of open educational resources: a literature review. Research in Learning Technology, 22(0).

Biffi, C. (2002): Evaluation von Bildungssoftware im Spannungsfeld von Objektivität und praktischer Anwendung. Medienpädagogik – Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung.

Conole, G., & Alevizou, P. (2010). A literature review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education. A report commissioned by the Higher Education. Milton Keynes, OK: Open University.

Golder, S. A., & Huberman, B. A. (2006). Usage patterns of collaborative tagging systems. Journal of information science, 32(2), 198-208.

Heinen, R., Blees, I., Kerres, M., Rittberger, M.: Open educational resources and social bookmarking. In: Stracke, C., Ehlers, U., Creelman, A., Shamarina-Heidenreich, T. (Eds.): Changing the trajectory. Berlin : Logos (2014), 33-40.

Hug, T. (2013). Education for all revisited: On concepts of sharing in the Open Educational Resources (OER) movement. Seminar.net, 10 (1). Retrieved from: http://www.seminar.net/images/stories/vol10-issue1/Theo_Hug_Education-for-all_Essay.pdf

Kerres, & Heinen, R. (2014a). Open educational resources and informational ecosystems: Edutags as a connector for open learning. MedienPädagogik. Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung, (Themenheft: Educational Media Ecologies (Ed. by Friesen, Norm; Hug, Theor, Meister, Dorothee M.)). Retrieved from: http://www.medienpaed.com/Documents/medienpaed/24/kerres_heinen1410.pdf

Leitperspektive Medienbildung – Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

RH-LMZWie sehen die kommenden Bildungspläne 2016 aus? Werden Sie den Ansprüchen an eine umfassende Medienbildung gerecht? Wie kann die Aus- und Fortbildung der Lehrkräfte weiterentwickelt werden und wie sieht eine sinnvolle und zeitgemäße technische Ausstattung und Betreuung der Schulen aus? Diesen Fragen gingen die Referenten beim Tag der offenen Tür des Stadtmedienzentrums Stuttgart (SMZ) am 16. April nach. Anlässlich der jüngst abgeschlossenen Renovierungsmaßnahmen luden der Leiter Johannes Gienger und sein Team Experten aus Politik, Wissenschaft und pädagogischer Praxis zum fachlichen Austausch ein.

BYOD und schulische IT-Infrastruktur ergänzen sich

Richard Heinen vom Learning Lab an der Uni Essen-Duisburg betreut das Projekt School IT Rhein Waal, das vier Schulen in der deutsch-niederländischen Grenzregion am Niederrhein zu „Medienschulen“ entwickelt. Dabei wird insbesondere der Bring-Your-Own-Device-Ansatz (BYOD) verfolgt, bei dem die private Hardware der Jugendlichen, also Laptops, Tablets und Smartphones, in den Unterricht integriert wird. Zudem setzt man im Projekt darauf, Schülerinnen und Schüler zu schulischen IT-Experten zur Unterstützung von Lehrkräften und Mitschülern auszubilden und man kooperiert mit lokalen IT-Unternehmen. MediaCulture-Online hat im vergangenen Jahr ausführlich über das Projekt berichtet.

Die Arbeitsgruppe Schule am Learning Lab befasst sich mit der Frage, wie die begrenzten Ressourcen, die für schulische Infrastruktur zur Verfügung stehen, möglichst sinnvoll eingesetzt werden können. Denn die technische Ausstattung alleine habe kaum einen positiven Effekt, so Heinen. Er kritisierte etwa die massenhafte Anschaffung von Interaktiven Whiteboards, die nur zur „Zementierung des Frontalunterrichts“ führten und für die Entwicklung einer modernen Lernkultur eher hinderlich seien. Wenn man sich „digitalen Unterricht“ so vorstelle, dass die Schülerinnen und Schüler alle in Einzelarbeit vor den Bildschirmen sitzen, dann könne man es den Kritikern nicht verübeln, wenn sie gegen die „Zwangsdigitalisierung“ oder „Computerisierung des Unterrichts“ Sturm liefen. Man brauche vielfältige Lernumgebungen, in denen Kinder und Jugendliche lernen, kreativ und selbstbestimmt mit Medien umzugehen und sie sinnvoll in den einzelnen Fächern einzusetzen.

Technik allein ist wenig hilfreich

Interessant war Heinens Blick über die Grenze: An einer der niederländischen Schulen im Projekt kämen auf 900 Schülerinnen und Schüler nicht nur 300 Rechner, sondern auch zwei in Vollzeit angestellte IT-Leute, die stets vor Ort sind und sowohl die Geräte warten als auch bei Projekten helfen. Hierzulande wird die Wartung der IT-Infrastruktur häufig von Lehrkräften nebenbei erledigt oder man ist auf externe Dienstleister angewiesen.

Doch neben der technischen Infrastruktur und deren Betreuung gehöre zu einer optimalen medialen Lernumgebung auch der Content, also für die Bildung geeignete Inhalte. Dabei komme es eine angemessene Mischung aus „klassischem“ Content in Form von Büchern und digitalen Ressourcen an. Bei Letzteren komme dem Thema Open Educational Ressources (OER) eine wachsende Bedeutung zu. Bei OER handelt es sich um Bildungsinhalte, die zu Lehr- und Lernzwecken ohne urheberrechtliche Bedenken wiederverwendet, überarbeitet, neu zusammengestellt, wiederveröffentlicht und langfristig behalten werden dürfen (englisch: reuse, revise, remix, redistribute, retain, 5-R). Das Stichwort OER führe bei Verlagen aufgrund wirtschaftlicher Befürchtungen schnell zu einem Schwarz-Weiß-Denken, hier gelte es Organisationsformen zu finden, dass diese „5 Rs“ garantiert werden.

Heinen sprach zudem ein Problem an, das sich vielen engagierten Kolleginnen und Kollegen an Schulen stellt, die sich mit dem BYOD-Ansatz beschäftigen: Sie trauen sich oftmals nicht, mit anderen darüber zu sprechen. Aufgrund von Handyverboten und datenschutzrechtlichen Problemen behielten viele Lehrerinnen und Lehrer ihre Unterrichtsideen lieber für sich, um sich nicht in Gefahr zu bringen. Hier sei mehr Kommunikation und Vernetzung nötig. Man müsse Initiativen auf der Praxisebene „wachsen lassen und dann Strukturen schaffen“, die deren Ideen in geordnete Bahnen leiten und für die breite Masse der Schulen nutzbar machen.


A federate reference structure in an open informational ecosystem

Vortrag auf der OER 15 gemeinsam mit Ingo Blees, DIPF

 

A federate reference structure in an open informational ecosystem

Heinen, Richard (UDE); Kerres, Michael (UDE); Scharnberg, Gianna (UDE), Blees, Ingo (DIPF), Rittberger, Marc (DIPF)

It can be considered as one of the advantages that the production and distribution of learning materials is much easier in the digital world. The OER movement benefits from these possibilities. Whereas, publishing is one thing; the other is to maintain the material, to make it accessible and to implement methods for quality assurance – not only as the responsibility of one publisher but as a task for a whole educational system.

Repositories of OER (ROER) can help to fulfil these tasks, if they follow some given criteria (Atenas & Havemann, 2014).Yet unsolved and underestimated is the question how to enhance transparency between different ROERs (Conole & Alevizou, 2010). Or: ROERs are regarded as appropriate tools to foster (McGreal et. al., 2013) the awareness for OER (UNESCO, 2012). However ,this reflects only the perspective of publishers and not of an (inter)national educational system. If resources are open the different metadata created by authors, editors and users, or even aggregated automatically should be open as well and accessible from different places. Furthermore: collecting descriptions, peer-reviews, ratings and other metadata independent from the resource adds to quality assurance and transparency and to informational autonomy of the user.

So far we have described the main idea of an open ecosystem and the benefit of joining metadata created by different users. As a next step we suggest a federate system of OER reference systems to connect resources and metadata across ROERs.

The paper will describe a federate ecosystem for OER using the example of the German educational system ,where a variety of ROERs (Muuß-Merholz & Schaumburg, 2014) and reference platforms (Kühnlenz et. al., 2012) have been established over the past years. In order to develop this ecosystem not only metadata standards are necessary, but also open APIs to exchange information In conclusion, it is essential that all relevant stakeholders agree on one transparent policy that they develop collaboratively.

 

References

Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (2014). Questions of quality in repositories of open educational resources: a literature review. Research in Learning Technology, 22(0).

Conole, G., & Alevizou, P. (2010). A literature review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education. A report commissioned by the Higher Education. Milton Keynes, OK: Open University.

Kühnlenz, A., Martini, R., Ophoven, B., Bambey, D., & others. (2012). Der Deutsche Bildungsserver–Internet-Ressourcen für Bildungspraxis, Bildungsverwaltung und Bildungsforschung. Erziehungswissenschaft, 23(44), 23–31.

McGreal, R., Kinuthia, W. & Marshall, S, eds. (2013) Open Educational Resources? Innovation, Research and Practice, UNESCO, Commonwealth of Learning and Athabasca University, Atahbasca.

Muuß-Merholz, J., & Schaumburg, F. (2014). Open Educational Resources (OER) für Schulen in Deutschland 2014: Whitepaper zu Grundlagen, Akteuren und Entwicklungen. Internet & Gesellschaft Collaboratory.

UNESCO (2012): Paris OER Declaration. Retrieved February 10, 2014, from: http://www.unesco.de/oer-faq.html

 

 

 

 

Machbarkeitsstudie zum Aufbau und Betrieb von OER-Infrastrukturen in der Bildung

Die Studie verfolgt das Ziel, bildungsbereichsübergreifend Bedarf, Akzeptanz, technische und organisatorische Anforderungen an eine zentrale (bzw. dezentral verteilte Angebote koordinierende) Infrastruktur für Open Educational Resources (OER) zu ermitteln sowie eine Kosteneinschätzung für Aufbau und Betrieb der erforderlichen Systemkomponenten (Repositorium, Referatorium) vorzunehmen. Das Design der Untersuchung sieht einen triangulären Methodenmix aus quantitativen und qualitativen Verfahren vor.

Weitere Informationen

Neue Veröffentlichung: Open Educational Resources and Informational Ecosystems

Michael Kerres, Richard Heinen: Open Educational Resources and Informational Ecosystems: «Edutags» as a connector for open learning. In: MedienPädagogik. Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung - Themenheft: Educational Media Ecologies , 24 , S. 154-173, 2014, ISSN: 1424-3636.

Open and Closed Informational Infrastructures for Education: The Case of “Edutags” as a Connector for Open Learning

Vortrag zusammen mit Michael Kerres auf dem Symposium Open Educational Resources and Informational Ecosystems: Impacts on Education im Network 06. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures auf der ECER in Porto.

Teaching and learning in school essentially relies on analogous and digital media, artefacts and tools of all kinds. Increasingly, Open Educational Resources (OER) become available and the question arises how the interaction between these players is impacted. On the one hand, some players implement closed informational ecosystems that might provide a rich and coherent environment for learning, but also lock the users into a defined and often restricted environment. On the other hand, other players are interested in developing an infrastructure that supports open learning without the boundaries of closed informational ecosystems. Such open informational ecosystems must provide interconnections to numerous, in principal, unlimited number of platforms for learning contents. In the context of the project “Edutags” a reference platform is being implemented by way in which the contents of various providers are being connected and enriched through user-generated tags, commentaries and evaluations. The discussion points out that such an independent reference platform, operated separately from content platforms, must be considered as an important element in an open and truly distributed infrastructure for learning resources. Hence, we do not only need open educational resources to support open learning, we also need to establish an open informational ecosystem that supports such approaches.

Neue Veröffentlichung: Open Educational Resources und schulisches Lernen: Das Zusammenwirken von Plattformen für Lernressourcen in informationell offenen Ökosystemen

Michael Kerres, Richard Heinen: Open Educational Resources und schulisches Lernen: Das Zusammenwirken von Plattformen für Lernressourcen in informationell offenen Ökosystemen. In: Missomeliu,; Stüzl,; Hug,; Grell,; Kammerl., (Hrsg.): Medien - Wissen - Bildung: Freie Bildungsmedien und Digitale Archive, S. 189-210, Innsbruck University Press, Innsbruck, 2014, ISBN: 978-3-902936-37-0.